:Exercise changes gut bacteria in just six weeks, new research reveals.Previously inactive people who exercise for at least 30 minutes a day three times a week experience increased levels of gut bacteria that produce butyrate, a study found.Butyrate is an anti-inflammatory acid that has been linked to protection against bowel cancer, as well as weight loss and stronger immunity.The same findings were previously found in mice, who became less likely to develop the inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis if they were active.Lead author Professor Jeffrey Woods from the University of Illinois, said: 'These are the first studies to show that exercise can have an effect on your gut independent of diet or other factors.'Yet, the catch is exercise's positive impact on gut bacteria is reversed if people revert to being inactive.EXERCISE CAUSES PEOPLE TO EAT MORE, REVERSING THEIR GOOD INTENTIONS Exercise without dieting does not cause weight loss, research revealed last month. After up to eight weeks of intensive cardio training three times a week, people experience no significant change to their weight or BMI if their diet stays the same, a a study found. Yet, among those who are obese or overweight, their so-called 'hunger hormones' are significantly altered, with researchers believing an increase in appetite may undo any weight-loss effects from exercise. Dr Hans-Peter Kubis from Bangor University, said: 'To be effective, exercise training for weight loss needs to be integrated into a lifestyle approach to weight loss, including exercise combined with diet.' Among those of a healthy weight, intense exercise does significantly increase their mean muscle mass, which the researchers add should encourage people to be active despite the lack of weight-loss effects. Dr Kubis said: 'Seeing no change on [the] scales may be enough to make people give up on their exercise training, not realizing that they have actually improved their body by gaining muscle mass.'How the research was carried outAll of the study's participants were previously sedentary before undergoing six weeks of endurance-based activity for three days a week that progressed from 30 minutes of moderate exercise a day to one hour of vigorous activity.The participants then went back to a sedentary lifestyle for six weeks.Their diets were consistent throughout the study.Fecal samples were collected before and after the participants became active.Results reveal exercise changes gut bacteria, which is largely reversed if people revert to being inactive.In particular, species that produce an anti-inflammatory acid known as butyrate increase, which has previously been linked to bowel-cancer protection, weight loss and stronger immunity.For unclear reasons, the findings are greater in lean people than those who are obese.The same findings also previously occurred in mice, who become less likely to develop the inflammatory bowel condition ulcerative colitis if they exercise.Professor Woods said: '
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